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San Francisco's Three Graces

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San Francisco's Three Graces

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George Frederick Keller


The Wasp, Vol. 8, No. 304

Publication Date:
May 26, 1882


Because of its geographic position and the economic opportunities California offered, San Francisco received a high number of Chinese Immigrants until the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 outlawed most Chinese immigration. Three specters arise above the city of San Francisco: Malarium, Small Pox, and Leprosy, represented as the Three Graces from Greek mythology. Many native-born Americans blamed the prevalence of these diseases on the immigrants (primarily Chinese) themselves because of their cramped and unsanitary living conditions.

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